A Dutch study has found that propane (R290) heat pumps are “universally applicable” to space and domestic-water heating in small, medium and large buildings.
The study also reports that heat pumps using natural refrigerants (hydrocarbons, CO2/R744 and ammonia/NH3/R717) deliver COPs equal to, or better than synthetic alternatives for almost every application.
The study was commissioned by the Netherlands Enterprise Agency for the Energy Top Sector at the request of the Dutch-based consortium TKI Urban Energy. René van Gerwen, owner of Dutch consultancy ENTROPYCS (ENTROPY Cooling Solutions), presented findings of the study – which he co-wrote with Charles Geelen, Owner of Dutch manufacturer Infinitus Energy Solutions – at the November 2022 ATMOsphere (ATMO) Europe Summit in Brussels. ATMO Europe was organized by ATMOsphere, publisher of hydrocarbons21.com.